Nature of Differences among People

Nature of Differences among People

By Dr. Ali Al-Halawani

Allah’s Will has ruled to create people with various perspectives and attitudes

Allah’s Will has ruled to create people with various perspectives and attitudes

Nature of Differences

Difference and disagreement mean that each person follows a special course that is different from that of others with regard to status or saying. Thus, difference is used to describe the variety in saying, opinion, status, form or situation.

The Will of Allah, the Al-Mighty has ruled to create people with different minds and perspectives, as well as different languages, colors, perceptions and beliefs. Allah Almighty says in His Ever-Glorious Qur’an,

“And His Signs are the creation of heavens and earth and the diversity of your tongues and colors. Surely, there are signs in this for all the worlds.” (Al-Rum 30:22)

All these matters lead to the diversity of opinions and judgments which may vary according to whoever is behind them.

If our different tongues and colors as well as the characteristics of our creation are but a sign of Allah the Almighty, the different perspectives and minds and what is produced by those perspectives and minds are also a sign from Him as well as an evidence of His great Power. Reconstruction of the universe, prosperity of existence, and the emergence of life would not have been possible, had all people been created equal in everything, but all is equipped to perform what he was created for. Allah Almighty says in His Ever-Glorious Qur’an,

“Had your Lord willed, He would have made mankind a single nation. But, they continue in their differences, except those on whom your Lord shows mercy. For this end He has created them.” (Hud 11:118-119)

Allah’s Will has ruled to create people with various perspectives and attitudes as well as the ability to choose their own attitudes and course freely and to be held responsible for their choices.

This entails that people should be different, and that this difference may even extend to the foundations of faith, except for those on whom Allah showed mercy.

Difference among people in saying may lead to the insistence of one or both of the opponents on own saying, opinion or situation and their attempt to convince others and force them to adopt these. This is called, ‘argument’. Hence, argument means negotiation based on dispute and struggling, “the human is the most disputatious of things.” (Al-Kahf 18:54)

If the dispute between the arguers aggravates and each prefers to have the upper hand than to work for the predominance of the truth and the right, and it becomes difficult to reach an agreement or a deal, then this case is called ‘discord’ which is mentioned in Allah’s Saying: “If you fear discord between them”, i.e. sharp disagreement followed by a dispute that forces each one of them to take refuge in an incision that is different from his companion’s.

The difference, which occurred among the ancestors of this nation – and is still a reality – represents part of this natural phenomenon, and it will remain to be a positive phenomenon with many benefits if such difference does not exceed its limits, and the nation follows its principles.


Dr. Ali Al-Halawani is Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Translation, Kulliyyah of Languages and Management (KLM), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He was Assistant Professor and worked for a number of international universities in Malaysia and Egypt such as Al-Madinah Interanational Univerity, Shah Alam, Malaysia (Mediu) and Misr University for Science & Technology (MUST), Egypt; Former Editor-in-Chief of the Electronic Da`wah Committee (EDC), Kuwait; Former Deputy Chief Editor and Managing Editor of the Living Shari`ah Department,; Member of the International Union of Muslim Scholars (IUMS); and member of the World Association of Arab Translators & Linguists (Wata). He is a published writer, translator and researcher. You can reach him at

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Proof of Existence of Allah

By Hasan Al-Banna

Proof of Existence of AllahRational and logical proofs of the attributes of Allah, exalted be He.

Theologians like to prove the attributes of Allah (SWT), using rational arguments and logical analogies. We see no harm in that approach because the mind is the repository of knowledge, and because sanity is a precondition for responsibility. This approach may help to remove any trace of confusion or falsehood from the mind of those who are confused or misguided.

However, the existence of Allah and affirming His attributes of absolute Perfection have become self-evident and hardly need any proof or argument. Only someone who is arrogant or with a diseased heart, would demand evidence for those self-evident truths. He may not even be satisfied with rational evidence. In spite of that, I am going to mention some general and specific rational proofs for the sake of completeness relating to what has been mentioned.

First proof

Our universe, which is so vast and intricate, points to the existence of its Creator, His greatness and Perfection.

Second proof

You cannot give what you do not have. If the Creator of this universe were not characterized by Perfection, how then can His creatures have in them the traces of those attributes of perfection.

Third proof

This has to do with the fact that the Creator is One and cannot possibly be more than one. This is because multiplicity of creators would be a cause of discord and chaos and one of them will have to be an overlord to the others since an essential quality of being God is to be majestic and great. Furthermore, if one of the Creators acted on his own, this would cancel out the divine attributes of the others, and if they joined together in action, this would do away with some of the attributes of each of them; and the annulment of the attributes of divinity contravenes its Majesty and Greatness. Thus there has to be One God and no other Lord.

These are examples of logical proofs of the existence of the Creator and His attributes. Whoever wants more proofs can refer to longer works. However, this matter is firmly established in the innate nature (fitrah) of pure souls and sound hearts.

For any to whom God giveth not light, there is no light! (An-Nur 24:40)


A question which puzzles many people

It was narrated in a hadith by Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be with him, said:

Some people will keep asking questions until they ask: ‘Allah created the creation but who created Allah?’ Whoever is asked this question, let him (simply) say ‘I believe in Allah’. (Narrated by Muslim)

Imam Mazrewy commented on this hadith and said that the Prophet seems to be enjoining Muslims to refrain from trying to respond to such questions about Allah. However, Imam Mazrewy explained, such questions are of two types: those which are not troubling the mind and did not arise because of some misconception. Those can simply be ignored. It seems that the above mentioned hadith is referring to this type of questions which are referred to as waswasah (whisperings of Satan). Since they are not persistently occurring to the mind, they can be set aside without consideration of evidence, because there is no benefit in dwelling on them. As to the persistent questions which arise as a result of some misconception, they can be tackled only with arguments and evidence. Allah knows best!

This question is wrong in the first place because we have been commanded by the Prophet, may the peace and blessing of Allah be with Him, not to ponder over the essence of Allah (SWT), because our weak minds are incapable of conceiving the true nature even of themselves. So how can they possibly understand the true nature of Allah (SWT). However, this question comes to the minds of some people and I would like to explain the answer to them through an example which, God willing, will satisfy their questions.

I would say the following:

If you place a book on your desk and then go out of the room and come back a short while later and find that the book which you had left on the desk had been removed and placed in the drawer, you would in this situation, be firmly convinced that someone must have put it in the drawer, this is because you know very well that among the attributes of this book is that it cannot move by itself. Remember this point and let us now move to the next point.

If there is someone sitting on a chair in your office, and you go out and come back and find him sitting on the carpet, for example, you would not ask about the reason for his movement, and you would not believe that someone moved him from his earlier position, because you know that among the attributes of this person is that he can move by himself and that he does not need anyone to move him. Now bear this second point in mind and listen to what I am going to say next.

Human beings came into existence at a certain point in time, and we know that they do not come into existence by themselves, but they must have a Creator. From that we conclude that their Creator is Allah (SWT). Now since perfect divinity presupposes that the deity does not need any other but is necessarily self-sufficient, we conclude that Allah (SWT) exists by Himself and does not need anyone to create Him.

If you place the first two points next to what I have just said, the answer will become clear to you. This is as far as the human mind can go. I ask Allah to protect us from error for He is indeed Kind and Merciful.

Now I would like to quote to you some statements of some European scholars which support the existence of Allah (SWT) and acknowledge His perfect attributes, and Allah alone I trust to help me succeed in my endeavor.


Statements by physicists which support the existence of Allah and acknowledge His attributes

We have stated earlier that this belief is innate in sound hearts and firmly established in pure minds. It is almost a self-evident fact supported by the outcome of the exercise of the mind, generation after generation. This is why European cosmologists and others have believed in it even though they didn’t learn about it from a religion. I shall move on to quote some of their testimonies, not by way of proving the truth of our faith, but in order to help strengthen it within souls and to silence those who would like to relinquish faith and who are deceiving themselves.

Descartes, the French philosopher, said ‘Even though I feel imperfection in myself, I feel at the same time there must be a Perfect Being and I find myself obliged to believe that this feeling was implanted in me by the Perfect Being which is characterized by all attributes of perfection, which is God.’

In this statement he is acknowledging his weakness and inadequacy and confirming his belief in the existence and perfection of Allah. He is acknowledging that his feelings and sensations are a gift from Allah and are part of the innate nature instilled in him by Allah:

The innate nature made by Allah in which He has made men. (Ar-Rum 30:30)

Isaac Newton, the well-known English physicist, who discovered the law of gravity said: ‘Don’t doubt the Creator, because it is inconceivable that accidents alone could be the controller of this universe.’

Herschel, the English astronomer, said: ‘The more knowledge we have, the more irrefutable proofs we obtain for the existence of an Eternal Creator with infinite power. Geologists, mathematicians, astronomers and biologists have co-operated in setting up the edifice of science which is the edifice of God’s greatness.’

Lenet was quoted by Camille Flamirion, the Frenchman, in his book titled ‘God in Nature’ as having said: ‘The wonders of God’s creation, the Everlasting, the Eternal, the Omniscient, the Omnipotent, have astounded me: what power, what wisdom, what creativity in His creatures, small or large. The benefits which we get from these creatures testify to the greatness of the Mercy of God who made them subservient to us. Their perfection and harmony points to His vast Wisdom. Their preservation from extinction and their renewal bear witness to His Majesty and Greatness.’

Herbert Spencer, the English philosopher, said in this respect in his Essay on Education: ‘Doubtless, to the superstitions that pass under the name of religion, science is antagonistic; but not to the essential religion which superstitions merely hide. Doubtless, too, in much of the science that is prevalent, there is a pervading spirit of irreligion; but not in that true science which has passed beyond the superficial into the profound.

Devotion to science is a tacit worship – a tacit recognition of worth in the things studied; by implication in their Cause. It is not a mere lip-homage, but a homage expressed in actions – not a mere professed respect, but a respect proved by the sacrifice, thought, and labor.

Not by dogmatic assertion, does it teach the impossibility of comprehending the Ultimate Cause of things; but it leads us clearly to recognize this impossibility by bringing us in every direction to the boundaries we cannot cross. It realizes to us in a way which nothing else can, the insignificance of human intelligence in the face of that which transcends human intelligence.’

He then goes on to give examples to explain what he meant:

‘A scientist who sees a drop of water and knows that it is made up of oxygen and hydrogen in certain proportions, in such a way that if these proportions change, we would have something other than water, believes in the Greatness, the Power, the vast Wisdom and Knowledge of the Creator more strongly and firmly than a non-biologist who sees it only as a drop of water. Similarly, a scientist who looks at a hailstone under a microscope and sees the beauty of its design and the magnificence of its composition, no doubt feels the Beauty of the Creator and the His vast Wisdom more strongly than does someone who knows nothing about it more than that it is frozen rain.’

The statements of cosmologists in this regard are innumerable, and what we have mentioned should suffice. We have cited those statements so that our young people realize that their religion is from Allah (SWT) and that science can only strengthen and support their faith. Allah, the Exalted, says in the Qur’an:

Soon will We show them our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things? (Fussilat 41:53)



Taken with slight modifications from the book titled: Al-`Aqa’id (The Islamic Creed):

Hasan Al-Banna is a Muslim thinker, reformer and writer. He founded the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928. He was assassinated in 1949.


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The Hypocrites and the Fitnah They Cause

The Hypocrites and the Fitnah They Cause

By A. O.


They make an effort to reduce such treachery to insignificance.

In Surat Al-Baqarah, verses 191 and 217, Allah states fitnah to be “worse than slaughter”. To have a better understanding of fitnah as an offense, it would be helpful to examine the case of “killing a man”, an offense described by the Qur’an.

“If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever): And the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him.” (Al-Nisa’, 93)

Actually, here, fitnah has a meaning other than “trial”. It is used for all acts and deeds leading man astray.

The Qur’an especially refers to hypocrites as the ones who “cause fitnah”. Allah informs us that hypocrites practice many forms of fitnah; they basically try to prevent believers from involving themselves in war, hatch plans against the Messenger and believers, and try to make them lose their sense of commitment.

Hypocrites misinterpret the verses, or rather distort the interpretation of verses and only comply with them, if they are of benefit to them. Believers, on the other hand, assume a totally different attitude; they demonstrate complete submission whatever the circumstances may be.

“He it is Who has sent down the Book to you: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those who have perversity in their hearts follow the part of it that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord.” And none will grasp the message except men of understanding.” (Aal `Imran, 7)

The basic characteristic of hypocrites is their indulgence in fitnah. The Arabic version of the word “hypocrite” is “munafiq”, which means “the one who makes a division.” Dividing believers is a fitnah as well as a great sin. There are verses in the Qur’an stating that hypocrites try to practice fitnah among believers:

“If they had come out with you, they would not have added to your (strength) but only (made for) disorder, hurrying to and fro in your midst and sowing sedition among you, and there would have been some among you who would have listened to them. But Allah knows well those who do wrong.” (Al-Tawbah, 47)

“And if an entry had been effected to them from the sides of the (city), and they had been incited to sedition, they would certainly have brought it to pass, but with a brief delay!” (Al-Ahzab, 14)

“Indeed they had plotted sedition before, and upset matters for you, until the truth arrived, and the decree of Allah became manifest, much to their disgust.” (Al-Tawbah, 47-48)

Should their plans be disclosed to believers, hypocrites plotting against the Messenger and believers try to convince believers of their innocence. They make an effort to reduce such treachery to insignificance. They surely go in great fear of believers and punishment, and thus conduct themselves as if they have never committed an offence. Moreover, they ask believers not to treat them like other hypocrites and demand the continuance of their relations.

“Among them is (many) a man who says: “Grant me exemption and do not expose me to temptation. Have they not succumbed to temptation already?” And indeed hell surrounds the unbelievers on all sides.” (Al-Tawbah, 49)

The verse asserts that hypocrites are liars and are involved in fitnah, just like others. Allah warns believers not to be deceived by their fraud.

Unbelievers and hypocrites will suffer the most grievous penalty in the hell in return to the fitnah they have caused:

“Taste this your trial, the punishment which you have sought to hasten!” (Al-Dhariyat, 14)


A. O. is a Turkish writer and author.


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